Henry III of England, Henry of Winchester, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland

Born October 1, 1207 at Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England
Died November 16, 1272 in England
Buried: Westminster Abbey, London, England

Son and successor of King John of England.
Crowned in 1216 (at age 9) at St. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester... and again in 1220 at Westminster Abbey by request of Pope Honorius III.
Eighty year old William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke acted as regent by popular request, Hugbert de Burgh succeeding him until Henry came of age in 1223.
Under his father's rule, the barons had revolted and were supporting an invasion by Prince Louis of France. When Henry came to the throne they saw him as a safer option and Henry's regents reissued the Magna Carta in his name. Henry himself reissued it again, a shorter version in 1225 and spent a good part of his reign in negotiation with his barons in one form or another.
In 1247, a year after their mother's death, Henry's half-siblings Alice, William, Aymer and Guy came to England in hope of a better future than their current prospects in France.
Henry granted them many benefices and found important positions for all of them, which caused some resentment amongst the English nobility. Henry also promoted his wife's foreign relatives to important positions. It seemed to many of the nobility that much of the country was going to the french foreigners.
In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, which effectively abolished the monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons to deal with the business of government.
Henry obtained a papal bull in 1262, exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. The Royalists were led by Prince Edward, Henry's eldest son. Civil war, known as the Second Barons' War, followed.
At the Battle of Lewes on May 14, 1264, Henry and Prince Edward were taken prisoner by Simon de Montfort's army. Fifteen months later, Prince Edward escaped captivity (freed by his cousin, Roger Mortimer) and turned the tables on de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265.


Eleanor of Provence on January 14, 1236 at Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England

Children of Henry III and Eleanor:

Siblings of Henry III:

Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Joan of England, Isabella of England, Eleanor of England

Half-siblings from mother's second marriage to Hugh X de Lusignan:

Alice of Lusignan, William de Valence, Agnes Agathe de Lusignan, Isabelle de Lusignan, Hugh XI d'Angouleme, de Lusignan, Aymer de Valance, Guy de Lusignan, Marguerite de Lusignan, Geoffori de Lusignan

Illigitimate half-siblings by his father and various mistresses:

Joanna/Joan of Powys, Richard FitzJohn, Oliver FitzRoy, Geoffrey FitzJohn, John FitzJohn Courcy, Henry FitzJohn, Osbert Gifford, Eudes FitzJohn, Bartholomew FitzRoy, Matilda/Maud FitzJohn, Isabel FitzJohn, Philip FitzRoy

      Geoffrey of Anjou
    Henry II of England Empress Matilda
      William X of Aquitaine
  John of England Eleanor of Aquitaine Aenor de Chatellerault
Henry III of England      
  Isabella d'Angouleme de Taillefer Aymer de Taillefer Guillaume de Taillefer IV
      Emma de Limoges
    Alice de Courtenay Pierre Capet of France
      Isabelle de Courtenay


Henry III effigy